Strategies to Minimize the Risk of Herbicide-Resistant Jointed Goatgrass

Strategies to Minimize the Risk of Herbicide-Resistant Jointed Goatgrass

EM024E
Download PDF
Lynn Ingegneri, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, Carol Mallory-Smith, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, Robert Zemetra, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR
Jointed Goatgrass is a winter annual weed similar in growth and characteristics to its relative: wheat. While herbicides are very effective in controlling jointed goatgrass, improper weed control techniques may encourage the development of herbicide-resistant forms. This publication defines herbicide resistance in general and explains the development of herbicide-resistant weeds, then describes specific plans and management techniques to prevent the development of herbicide-resistant jointed goatgrass in wheat fields.
Section 3 Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Mauris sit amet pulvinar massa, vel suscipit turpis. Vestibulum sollicitudin felis sit amet mi luctus, sed malesuada nibh ultricies. Nam sit amet accumsan dui, vitae placerat tortor. Vestibulum facilisis fermentum dignissim. Maecenas ultrices cursus diam, eu volutpat urna viverra non.

Page:

...

Glossary

allele: form of a gene responsible for the coding of a single trait, such as herbicide resistance.

backcross: the resultant offspring from breeding a= hybrid back to one of its parents.

backcross generation: the number of times the same parent is used in a cross after the initial cross. For example the BC2 generation indicates one of the parents was crossed two additional times in that line.

biotype: naturally occurring individuals within the same species that differ in appearance and/or genetics.

gene: basic unit of inherited biological information; the portion of a strand of DNA that carries the code for a single protein or enzyme.

gene flow: movement of genes between plant populations.

genome: the complete set of DNA for an organism.

herbicide group: herbicides that act similarly on weeds; herbicides with the same fundamental biological action or site of action.

herbicide resistance: the inherited ability of a biotype to survive and reproduce following exposure to an herbicide applied at a rate that would kill the susceptible biotype.

herbicide rotation: changing the herbicide group used in a field from year to year to deploy different sites of action to minimize the potential for selection for herbicide resistance.

hybridize: crossing between varieties or species of plants to produce offspring.

Integrated Weed Management: the incorporation of all appropriate management techniques including biological, chemical, mechanical, and cultural practices in a weed control program.

mutation: random change in the genome of an organism; the result of either internal accident (a copying mistake during reproduction) or external causes such as exposure to mutagens.

 

 

natural selection: when an allele (trait) increases in a population due to pressure from the environment favoring that allele over another allele, resulting in an increase in individuals carrying the favored allele in the next generation.

nucleotide: one of the building blocks of DNA that consists of a phosphoric acid group, deoxyribose, and one of four bases: adenine (A), thymine (T), cytosine (C) or guanine (G).

out-cross: a plant that can be fertilized by another plant’s pollen; the offspring resulting from crosspollination.

plant population: a group of plants living in close proximity, under the same conditions.

selection pressure: impact of an environmental factor on the genetic composition of a population.

self-pollinating: a plant that can be fertilized by its own pollen.

semi-dominant: when a plant is heterozygous (has 1 copy of an allele) for a trait and the plant’s expression of that trait is approximately half of what the expression for the trait would be when the plant is homozygous for the trait (has 2 copies of the allele).

site of action: the place in a plant where a specific herbicide works.

Cover photo provided by Carol Mallory-Smith, Oregon State University.

Page:

...

Copyright 2016 Washington State University

Published December, 2011

Use pesticides with care. Apply them only to plants, animals, or sites as listed on the label. When mixing and applying pesticides, follow all label precautions to protect yourself and others around you. It is a violation of the law to disregard label directions. If pesticides are spilled on skin or clothing, remove clothing and wash skin thoroughly. Store pesticides in their original containers and keep them out of the reach of children, pets, and livestock.

WSU Extension bulletins contain material written and produced for public distribution. Alternate formats of our educational materials are available upon request for persons with disabilities. Please contact Washington State University Extension for more information

Issued by Washington State University Extension and the U.S. Department of Agriculture in furtherance of the Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914. Extension programs and policies are consistent with federal and state laws and regulations on nondiscrimination regarding race, sex, religion, age, color, creed, and national or ethnic origin; physical, mental, or sensory disability; marital status or sexual orientation; and status as a Vietnam-era or disabled veteran. Evidence of noncompliance may be reported through your local WSU Extension office. Trade names have been used to simplify information; no endorsement is intended.